Carniolan bee (Apis mellifera Carnica) in Slovenia




Breeding programme for the Carniolan Bee

4.3 Breeding programme

Every registered queen breeding centre, in accordance with the new legislation, must consist of two apiaries with at least 20 colonies, which must be at least 3 km apart. One of the apiaries serves for the primary selection of colonies, and the other is physically devoted to the breeding of queens. Each breeder is obliged to select queens from his own sources, or to include queens from hives in the immediate vicinity. Any kind of exchange of queens between registered queen breeding centres is forbidden, because of the risk of increasing the level of relationship in whole populations.

17 - Every queen breeder is obliged to select queens from his own resources

In the apiary for the primary selection of colonies, we select on the basis of their own productivity the best colonies with two-year old queens. The colonies must correspond to criteria of breed purity, they must be calm. They must not have shown signs of swarming in the past year, and in addition, their honey production in the past year must have been above average. Each registered breeder is obliged to select at least three queens a year according to the aforementioned procedure and to transfer them to apiaries intended for queen production. 

The breeding of daughters of these queens for the needs of progeny testing follows. Each queen provides at least 15 daughters for testing. The testing takes place in the apiaries of contract beekeepers who, in compliance with a contract with the authorised breeding organisation, must monitor the productivity of the colonies in the following year, and complete the relevant documentation  

18 -Physokermes hemycriphus is one of the more important producers of forest honey

Contract beekeepers are an extremely important link in the overall system of bee selection. Their work contributes to the effective evaluation of breeding queens, and assists in orienting the breeding aims of selection. Each contract beekeeper accepts a series of 10 to 20 marked queens in the summer period, without knowing their origin. He introduces the queens to his production hives and then in the following year monitors the honey production, fertility and calmness of the bees in these hives. In the autumn, he reports the results to the republican service for the selection of Carniolan bees and, at the same time, receives all the required data on the origin of the queens and recommendations on the future selection of queens.


19 - False acacia (Robinia) is one of the more important sources of honey each spring

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